American Immigration In patterns and policies 20100100203 Introduction Called “the melting pot” and “the salad bowl”, America is a country containing people of different colors–white, black and yellow, which is a result of long-term immigration. According to data from United States Census Bureau, the number of foreign-born residents In America, occupying 12. 5% of the total population, has reached 38. 5 million, which is the highest In the world (Greece & Travelers,2010).
For a long time since colonial era, America has served as the most popular destination for steady flow of Immigrants. Oscar Handle(1951) once salad “Once I thought to write a history of the Immigrants In America, I discovered that the Immigrant were American history’. So we can easily find out how important immigration is to America, whether in the past or at present. This paper will focus on exploring how and why patterns of and policies towards immigration to the United States change in modern times.
We can know more about the development of American Immigration, which can help us to know more about its ethnicity, culture and other aspects of America. Changes in patterns and policies During American history, the country experienced successive waves of Immigration which rose and fell over time and the Immigration rules became more restrictive. Patterns of Immigration have changed a lot In modern times. At the same time, US immigration polices have gone through three major phases: laissez-fairer, qualitative restrictions, and quantitative restrictions(Martin,2011).
Patterns of and policies towards immigration to the united States are actually two inter-related factors that influence each other. 1 . Changes in patterns American Year Book of Immigration Statistics divides immigration into four patterns– Legal Permanent Residents, Refugees and Sallies, Naturalization and Immigrant Admissions. Unauthorized Immigration Is not included. According to a charter of America Immigration and Migration Patterns (2013), the immigration decreased and Increased over time through sass, when the first rapid rise occurred.
The average yearly volume of 1 sass was over 5,000,000, much higher than that of sass below 3,000,000. And immigration kept stable until sass when another Then the number of immigrants began to fall and reached its bottom in sass, of which the average yearly volume is less than 1,000,000. It picked up in sass and gradually increased to sass. We can also see the occupation ratio of different ethnic immigrants in different times. Until the sass, most immigrants were from Europe.
Immigration was low, reaching its bottom record 91 ,918 in 861, during and after reconstruction from the Civil War. But as immigration began rising in the 1869, Congress posed qualitative restrictions on who could immigrate. The Page Act of 1875 was the first US immigration law to forbid undesirable immigrants to the United States, including forced workers from Asia, women for the purposes of prostitution and people considered to be convicts in their countries. After that, more qualitative restrictions were proposed.
Congress imposed the first quantitative restrictions on immigration in 1921. The 1921 Emerging Quota Act and he 1924 National Origins Act set numerical limits on immigration based on “national origin”,making it easy for those of North European background to enter the country, restricting those of South and East European background and excluding Immigration Act in 1965 represented a marked shift of policy. It did away with the national origins system and based immigration permits on the need for occupational skills.
It placed a high priority on family reunification, established a seven-category preference system for family members, skill-based individuals and refugees and removed the barriers to Asian Since 1980 overall significant pieces of legislation, including Refugee act (1980), Immigration reform and Control Act (1986), Immigration Act (1990) and Illegal Immigration Act(1996), have shaped the current immigration system. Reasons From the above analysis, we can find out some reasons of these changes. Economic attraction was the leading cause for immigration in all times.
Europeans first landed on the New World were Just lured by opportunities to gain great fortune, Gold Rush, job opportunities, industrial boom etc. We can find that And people from other countries flooded later were appealed by new opportunities brought by rapid placement of American economy. Social stability influenced the immigration. When abruptly while during Vietnam War and Gulf War, it increased. So wars in America would scare away those who want to come but wars in other countries would encourage local people to immigrate to America.
Immigration policies were adjusted according to different patterns but also influenced them. The Refugee Act in 1980 was launched to solve to problem of too many refugees and after that the ratio of refugees had been thinned. So when more restrictive policies are posed on the immigration of a group of people, the patterns of immigration would change. Conclusion Patterns of and policies towards immigration to the United States have been changed all the time and will keep changing. Now America are tying to control the number of immigrants by posing more restrictive policies.