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Rolling Tide of Immigration Largest Mass Movement in History 1880-1921, 23 million people immigrated (arc. ) Nearly 46 million people left homelands seeking new countries. Papers, NO passports for USA Demographics After 1880 ” Old Immigrants ” Northwestern Europe; Before 1880 ” New Immigrants ” = Southern & Eastern; After 1880 Who Were They?

Young , Mostly Male , and Catholic & Jewish Spoke little or no English What Did They DO? Unskilled agricultural laborers Push & Pull Factors Economic Decline Begins In Europe Immigrants end up coming to the USA for Industrial Revolution Effect replace haply Unhygienic Miming conditions, NO quotas, NO “Their standard way of life was one of slow starvation. ” Population Increased; on the rise.

More people competed for fewer resources, land, food, jobs Political & Religious Persecution Eastern Europe Jews could not move “beyond the Pale” Stripped of their legal rights, (1/3 of Europe. Pop) The Lure of Life in America Newspaper articles & letters painted USA as a “Lollipops on every corner” American businesses “Gold on the sidewalk”, and . Why? Hardships – Used all of their savings ( Getting from interior lands to coastal port cities was

The Journey Across the Atlantic Steamship Accommodations ; 8-14 days; steel hull ships First & second class was unaffordable for MOST immigrants – no windows, no ventilation, cramped On Average: Living Conditions in Steerage Uncomfortable at best, inhumane at worst No sunlight, no fresh air, smell unbearable Contagious diseases ( Cabin Class Replaced steerage after it was removed This is where 1st and 2nd class were accommodated We Have Arrived!

Arriving in America 75% of all immigrants Passengers crowded the decks to see their new home Skyscrapers to the northeast, o the west. Most memorable moment, immigrants seeing Lady Liberty “l Looked with wonder on this miraculous land of our dreams. ” Who can quote the plaque at the base of the Statue of Liberty? “Give your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me. I lift my lamp beside the golden door. After Just passing the Statue of Liberty, lay the , legal and medical inspections 1st & 2nd Class Inspections 1st & 2nd Class passengers simply prepared for Arriving at Ellis Island ND entered the USA Steerage passengers Most passengers boarded crowded barges ; Separated into Hope, fear, excitement, uncertainty On the whole, it was an ” ” policy Weed out weak and mentally defective exam and then a more thorough exam Escorted to holding rooms for additional examinations shoulder with chalk ” for heart problems ” for hernia ” for lameness ” for mental difficult , looking for and Mark your right Upon completion of medical inspections, the Legal Inspections: The Registry Hall After medical inspection, immigrants faced a iron railings was next , in tight lines shaped by Match answers from ship manifest with face-to-face answers Name Change? Schoolbooks = Smith The Final inspection Lasted only Asked to confirm answers from manifest If immigrants passed all the inspections… They were free to go – Ethnic Enclaves Leaving Ellis Island After approval, immigrants sought the next step of their Journey. After arriving in US, New York City, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia By 1920, 75% of foreign-born residents lived in cities Settled in ” ” or ethnic neighborhoods Living Conditions City Tenement Buildings Cities ill-equipped to handle massive

Streets filled with waste due to inadequate sewage systems , run-down, low-rent apartments clustered together in poorest areas of cities Some examples from a city worker in New York City Building with People 3 room apartment people Perils of Tenement Living Toilets in yards; coal stove for heat One social worker could not locate a single bathtub in more than three city blocks in tenement housing 40% of immigrants developed Rural Living Conditions 60% of immigrant (HIGH MIR) Some settled in California, Midwest, Florida Relatively Midwest?? Blizzards, , dust storms Working Conditions The Immigrant Workforce Mostly American industries were growing rapidly Desperate, wanting leave agricultural Jobs in Europe Worker exploitation, intolerable working conditions work hours per week Dangerous, unsanitary, uncomfortable Improved Standard of Living? Despite horrible conditions, most were better off than they were in Europe $ per year in Europe, in US for farm laborers.

America’s Treatment of Immigrants American Nativity Native-born Americans viewed new immigrants with fear, hostility, suspicion belief was based on new immigrants posing a threat Deep-seated Americans of northern/western Europe looked down on southern/eastern Europeans British, German, Scandinavian people were considered “free, energetic, progressive” Slavic, Mediterranean, Jews were viewed as “historically down-trodden, atavistic [inbred], and stagnant Nativities worked to restrict the number of immigrants Literacy tests, preventing ” Asked for laws restricting number of immigrants allowed to enter 1921, Established for the number of immigrants the US would accept from each country Dialing Bill marked the end of the immigration ” in US history. Greatest ” policy, ending the